First, you might want to read up on the following topics: neurophysiology, neural networks (in the computing sense), computational theory, and quantum computing.
Essentially, it appears that consciousness is an emergent property of "entingled" phosphorous (P) nuclei. The word entingled I use to mean that the wave functions describing the nuclear spin states are synchronized sufficiently close in phase (at the frequency corresponding to spin +1) that any measurement of phase would yield the same result as one would measure had the two wave functions actually been truly entangled via the traditional methods of particle splitting or the photon 'mirroring' in lasers, &c.
When a neuron fires, it has been triggered by the presence of a field buid-up from one or more axons that themselves are carrying the result of firing somewhere else in the brain. Timing is directly affected by the varying lengths of the axons. Their interconections are the result of random growth during embyonic & later develeopment as well as random cell death. Within the brain, many of the neurons have multiple inputs. Thus, if the timing of the firings could be consistently modulated (advanced or delayed) by different patterns on the input axons, it would be a manner to compute logical operations.
But there"s a lot of uncertainty in the timing. Just about all of them are firing several times a second. Each event is subject to minor variations in alkali ion concentrations brought about by Brownian motion (This is just ′background noise′ at the molecular level). With nothing apparently in place to impose order, quantum uncertainty itself in the electric field strength across the membrane makes meaningful intelligence even less likely.
But it just so happens that phosphorous nuclei in appropriate spin states can alter the electrical potential required by the neuron in order for it to fire. It also just so happens that phosphorous nuclei are present in neurons as hydrated calcium phosphate. One form is as "Posner" molecules. These have the serendipitous property of being a molecule in the shape of a rectangular prism. (This makes the math easier). If you want to see a picture, look at the of page 2 of the first of these 2 references. NB: Even if you do not understand them (& I don′t pretend to), the equations are downright pretty, especially the women's.
Quantum Cognition: The possibility of processing with nuclear spins in the brain (Matthew Fisher)
Quantum information in the Posner model of quantum cognition (Nicole Yunger Halpern & Elizabeth Crosson)
By an ironic twist of fate, the author of the first reference I gave above, (Matthew Fisher) was already a University physics professor. He suffered from a mental health problem, and was prescribed lithium. It seemed to work well, and he read up on the Internet about it and found out that different isotopes of lithium have a HUGE difference in their effect on brain function. At that time, nobody knew why, and he decided to give it the old 'college try' to find out, and that's what started him on the path to the literally mind-boggling conclusion that cognition could be described as the result of quantum entanglement of phosphorous nuclei.
The big problem I have is that, I can see no place where he describes any even half-baked mechanisms. One thing of special note is the end of para 4 on page 2:
Residual magnetic field fluctuations will lead to "directional diffusion" of the phosphorus spins with very long coherence times, [approximately] 100,000 seconds or about 1 day.
The same reference gives a lot of explanation about how polyphosphate molecules can split, thus assuring that the P nuclei have entangled spin states. I have nothing to say for nor against any of it, because I feel that does not matter. My assertion (original as far as I know) is that basically *all* phosphorous nuclei within your body as Posner molecules eventually become synchronized in phase close enough at the quantum frequency corresponding to spin +1.
FAST & reverse conduction
Sleep cycles & how they sycnronize spin functions.